Hip

Hip

Hip and groin pain are relatively common complaints among football players of all levels. This chapter will focus on hip joint pathologies (the different entities of sports-related groin pain will be covered in their own module). Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is now recognised as a disorder that can lead to progressive labral and chondral injury in [...]
Stress Fractures

Stress Fractures

Stress fractures represent the failure of the bony skeleton to absorb repetitive loads. This results in structural fatigue of the bone, causing pain, performance impairment and potentially a complete fracture. Loading can be intrinsic through transmission of impact forces within the bone and/or extrinsic via the application of tension across bone from the muscles and [...]
Groin Injuries

Groin Injuries

Groin injuries are among the three most common and time-consuming injuries in football, accounting for 8-18% of all injuries and with an incidence of 0.4-1.3 injuries per 1,000 hours of football play. 1 A study looking exclusively at acute groin injuries in Swedish soccer found an incidence of 0.8 injuries per 1,000 hours of play, [...]
Tendinopathy

Tendinopathy

Pain in the tendon, especially in the Achilles and the patellar tendon, known as tendinopathy, is very common among individuals who play football either competitively or as a hobby. Tendon disorders can also occur in physically inactive individuals. As a result, it appears that physical activity is not always directly associated to histopathology and that [...]
Meniscus and Cartilage

Meniscus and Cartilage

Injuries to the cartilage in the knee are relatively common in football players. Meniscal tears represent 8% of all injuries sustained over a professional football season. The medial meniscus is affected in more than 70% of the cases. Focal articular cartilage defects of the knee are also a substantial cause of pain and disability in [...]
Foot

Foot

Football is one of the most popular sports in the world and one in which the feet are most exposed to injury. Statistics show that between two and 9.4 football players suffer an injury to their feet per 1,000 hours of exposure. Of these injuries, we most commonly find sprains, fractures and torn ligaments as [...]
Thigh Muscle Injuries

Thigh Muscle Injuries

Thigh muscle injuries occur frequently as a result of contusions, and as muscle strains due to repeated maximal sprints and acceleration. Because football combines maximal sprints with frequent player-to-player contact, it is not surprising that up to 30% of all football injuries are thigh muscle injuries. In fact, results from the elite leagues in England, [...]
Knee

Knee

Injuries to the knee are among the most common problems seen in football. It is important to make an accurate diagnosis as the treatment of knee injuries can vary widely. For example, anterior knee pain commonly develops insidiously and is best managed non-operatively. In contrast, ligamentous injuries are almost always due to direct trauma and [...]
Ankle

Ankle

The ankle is the most commonly injured joint in sport. In international football, ankle injuries constitute 11% to 23% of all injuries recorded during FIFA competitions.1 The rate of ankle injuries in lower-level amateur players, children and adolescents is higher still, representing 35% of all injuries. 1 Most ankle injuries are relatively uncomplicated sprains of [...]
Anterior Cruciate Ligament

Anterior Cruciate Ligament

The knee is one of the most common locations for injury in football players (second only to the thigh). While anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries represent less than 1% of all injuries, their impact on a players career is very significant. As a result these injuries are well known and widely publicised. In this module [...]