Touchline Care

Touchline Care

There are a variety of relatively minor complaints that commonly occur on the touchline – or present in the dressing room – which are not considered in the other modules in this course. These conditions include the management of blisters, muscle cramps and minor bleeding. While quite minor, each of these problems can cause significant [...]
Concussion

Concussion

The primary focus of the initial on-pitch assessment of a player who has sustained a head trauma during training or match play is to assess the player for concussion or a more severe head or cervical spine injury. Once this has been done, and the assessment suggests that the player has sustained a concussion, they [...]
Neurology

Neurology

Exercise and physical activity appears to have profound effects on the brain. Neuroimaging techniques (like functional MRI) have shown that exercise leads to changes in brain structure and function. It has been shown that physical activity can be an effective treatment for depression, improve memory and be beneficial for both the treatment and prevention of [...]
General Emergency

General Emergency

Significant medical and orthopaedic emergencies are relatively rare in a football environment. They do, however, occur and clinicians and event organisers must be prepared to manage these conditions. An awareness of the more common conditions and a plan to manage these appropriately is essential. Medical emergencies should always be managed along the lines of existing [...]
Head and Neck

Head and Neck

Across all sports, special attention must be given to head and neck injuries. This is because in rare cases, these injuries are potentially serious and can lead to a prolonged course of treatment or have catastrophic consequences. Football is generally not considered to be a high-risk sport. In international championships (1998 to 2012), approximately 13% [...]
Mental Health

Mental Health

The WHO defines mental health as “a state of well-being in which every individual realises his or her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to her or his community”. Rather than being viewed as a “disorder”, mental health should [...]
Environment

Environment

Football is a global game. As a result, it is played in a wide range of environmental conditions. These factors can both affect a player’s performance and make them more likely to become unwell. This module will focus on four common environmental factors and how they may impact on football. These factors relate to extremes [...]
Infectious diseases

Infectious diseases

Playing football, and physical activity in general, has an effect on a player’s immune status. This effect is directly related to the amount and intensity of training. This must be considered when developing a team’s training programme. Too much load may compromise immunity and lead to illness. There are a variety of infectious diseases which [...]
Football for Health

Football for Health

Physical inactivity is a very significant public health problem. As a society, we are becoming increasingly sedentary and more obese. This has obvious health implications. Physical activity is an important health intervention. Playing football for 45-60 minutes two or three times a week has been shown to markedly improve cardiovascular and musculoskeletal function. It is [...]
Radiology

Radiology

Radiology plays an important role in the investigation of many sports medicine injuries. The most widely ordered studies include X-rays and ultrasound scans. X-rays are the simplest modality for defining bony injuries, while ultrasound enables assessment of many soft-tissue structures including muscles, tendons and ligaments. In general terms, these investigations are complementary and an ultrasound [...]
Respiratory

Respiratory

It is well established that various medical conditions and illnesses, especially respiratory tract symptoms, affect elite athletes while they are travelling to and competing in international competitions. 1-3 These medical conditions most commonly affect the ear, nose and throat, respiratory tract, dermatological system, central nervous system and gastrointestinal system. 1-4 Elite athletes are not immune [...]
Injury Prevention

Injury Prevention

Football is the most widely played sport in the world, with over 265 million men and women participating in the sport. Injuries in football are unfortunately exceedingly common. They occur more frequently in younger players, with 80% of injuries occurring in players under the age of 24 and 44% of injuries occurring in players under [...]
Shoulder

Shoulder

The shoulder is one of the less common locations for injuries to football players. While shoulder problems represent less than 3% of all injuries, their impact on a player’s career can be very significant. As a result, these injuries are well known and widely publicised. Common sporting injuries of the shoulder include dislocations and labral [...]
Nutrition

Nutrition

The foods and drinks that a player chooses in training and competition will affect performance. All players need to be aware of their personal nutritional goals and of how they can select an eating strategy to meet those goals. Every player is different, and there is no single diet that meets the needs of all [...]
Medical Bag

Medical Bag

Medical support staff (usually doctors, physiotherapists and athletic trainers) at all levels of the game of football need to be prepared to manage a range of medical and musculoskeletal complaints. To do this they need to be equipped with adequate equipment including diagnostic, treatment and communication aides. These need to be readily accessible to allow [...]
Hip

Hip

Hip and groin pain are relatively common complaints among football players of all levels. This chapter will focus on hip joint pathologies (the different entities of sports-related groin pain will be covered in their own module). Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is now recognised as a disorder that can lead to progressive labral and chondral injury in [...]
Diabetes

Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic endocrine disorder characterised by hyperglycaemia resulting from either defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. 1 Regular physical activity and participation in team sports from a young age have been associated with reduced macrovascular complications in type-1 diabetes and a delay in the onset of type-2 diabetes. 2 Athletes [...]
Stress Fractures

Stress Fractures

Stress fractures represent the failure of the bony skeleton to absorb repetitive loads. This results in structural fatigue of the bone, causing pain, performance impairment and potentially a complete fracture. Loading can be intrinsic through transmission of impact forces within the bone and/or extrinsic via the application of tension across bone from the muscles and [...]
Groin Injuries

Groin Injuries

Groin injuries are among the three most common and time-consuming injuries in football, accounting for 8-18% of all injuries and with an incidence of 0.4-1.3 injuries per 1,000 hours of football play. 1 A study looking exclusively at acute groin injuries in Swedish soccer found an incidence of 0.8 injuries per 1,000 hours of play, [...]