Anterior Cruciate Ligament

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10 Lessons

The knee is one of the most common locations for injury in football players (second only to the thigh). While anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries represent less than 1% of all injuries, their impact on a players career is very significant. As a result these injuries are well known and widely publicised.

In this module we will review the clinical assessment of patients with an ACL injury. In particular we will review aspects of the history and examination which are suggestive of this injury. We will also discuss the imaging of acute knee injuries and examine the different options available for treatment of ACL deficiency.

Presented by

Learning outcomes

  • How to recognise an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury from clinical history taking
  • The clinical examination techniques which are required to make a diagnosis of an ACL injury
  • The role of imaging in ACL injury
  • The different treatment options for ACL injury
  • How to implement an ACL prevention program


  • Watch or listen to embedded multimedia content
  • Review the clinical examination techniques and image library
  • Complete required reading
  • Complete the relevant assessment module

Suggested Reading

Brukner & Khan’s
Clinical Sports Medicine – 4th Edition
Chapter 32 (pages 626-683)


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  2. Pinczewski L, Roe J, Salmon L. Why autologous hamstring tendon reconstruction should now be considered the gold standard for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in athletes. Br J Sports Med 2009 May;43(5):325-7.
  3. Rahr-Wagner L, Thillemann TM, Pedersen AB, Lind M. Comparison of hamstring tendon and patellar tendon grafts in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in a nationwide population-based cohort study: Results from the danish registry of knee ligament reconstruction. Am J Sports Med 2014 Feb;42(2):278-84.
  4. Carmichael JR, Cross MJ. Why bone-patella tendon-bone grafts should still be considered the gold standard for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Br J Sports Med 2009 May;43(5):323-5.
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